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综述结论部份的写法和范文-by zhenmafudan from emuch

2013-4-28 00:28| 发布者: admin| 查看: 4866| 评论: 0

摘要: by zhenmafudan from emuch也曾读过很多综述,感到很多综述虎头蛇尾,引言部分牛皮吹得很震天响,可是到了最后越写越粗糙,到了结尾部分竟然几句话草草收尾了!读了如此综述,感到通 篇就是“谁谁谁做了什么,他们发 ...
by  zhenmafudan from emuch
也曾读过很多综述,感到很多综述虎头蛇尾,引言部分牛皮吹得很震天响,可是到了最后越写越粗糙,到了结尾部分竟然几句话草草收尾了!读了如此综述,感到通 篇就是“谁谁谁做了什么,他们发现了什么”,只有罗列事实,没有评述。正如K.R. Seddon在Inorganic Liquids in Synthesis (Second Edition)一书的序言中所说:"How many papers within this annual flood of reviews say anything critical, useful, or interesting? How many add value to a list of abstracts which can be generated in five minutes using SciFinder ot the ISI Web of Knowledge? How many of them can themselves be categorised as garbage? It is the twenty-first century----if a review is just an uncritical list of papers and data, what is its value?"

经过长期总结,发现综述的结论部份其实是有某种“套路”的,正如中国古代的词,是有套路的一样!写综述的结尾部分如同以前高中回答政治题目,要“回答到点子上”。

综述的结论部份要实现几种基本功能、基本内容:

第一层次的内容就是要总结上面已经综述了什么东西,简要地给读者进行“复习”,然后说这些学术进展有什么意义。

第二层次的功能是“打补丁”。任何综述都不可能面面俱到,往往读者看了文章会说:“为什么我的文章没有被引用?”于是就要在综述里实现把“补丁”打好。打 “补丁”的地方有两处,一处是引言的最后,另一处是结论部份再次“打圆场”, 说囿于本文的范围,还有其它什么什么方面没有介绍,请感兴趣的读者看其它什么什么相关综述。

第三层次的内容是评述这些学术进展的不足之处和面临的挑战。这些都是一定要说的。常见的不足之处是:机理研究不清楚,效果有待进一步提高、研究范围有待扩 大,只是合成出吸引眼球的材料而没有证明其引用、没有能大规模生产等。讨论这些内容时可以分几段来写,每一段第一句加一个总起句。

第四层次的内容是对未来的展望,这也是一定要说的。编辑邀请作者写综述,一个目的就是希望看到这篇综述在发表后能够被广泛引用。如果综述的内容是一个“已 经死亡的课题”,即不会再有人做的课题,那么这样的综述一定不受编辑部欢迎。另外,评论过去和展望未来,能显示出作者对这个领域的认识和洞察力。否则的 话,别人查文献把摘要罗列在一起就行了,何必看综述呢?

下面我介绍我写的Z. Ma, S.H. Overbury, S. Dai*, Gold Nanoparticles as Chemical Catalysts, in: Nanomaterials: Inorganic and Bioinorganic Perspectives, C.M. Lukehart, R.A. Scott (eds.), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, in press. <link>一文的结论部份。

本文作为Nanomaterials: Inorganic and Bioinorganic Perspectives一书的一章,从催化剂设计角度综述了黄金催化剂结构设计的几种策略和具体的方法。和“市场”上其它综述的区别是:其它综述多描述 传统的黄金催化剂,综述反应机理、一氧化碳氧化、有机反应和金催化剂的其它应用,但是很少有综述从“高级催化材料设计”的角度综述金催化剂设计的进展。本 文的目的是填补这样的“市场空白”。其结论部份及其讲解如下:

8. Concluding remarks

In this chapter, we summarized recent advances in the preparation of nano gold catalysts from the perspective of inorganic materials synthesis. These materials synthesis techniques (e.g., chemical grafting, co-synthesis, and surface-sol-gel method) not only furnish new means to deposit uniform and well-dispersed gold nanoparticles on various supports, but also produce surface-functionalized supports and uniform nanostructured supports for loading gold particles. In addition, after gold particles are supported, the catalyst may be further modified to tune the catalytic performance. These catalysts provide new opportunities for the study of the relation between structure and catalytic performance, and aid in the rational design of gold catalysts.


第一段,第一句为总起句,给读者一个宽泛的概念:本文讲了什么?本文的选材出发点(角度)是什么?这一句话等同于文章标题,即用一句话扩充文章的标题。后 面两句话具体回顾本文综述的金催化剂设计的几个策略。最后一句话评价这些策略的意义。关于评价意义的话总是要的,如果没有意义,那么综述也不能发表了。

To put the information in perspective, it should be mentioned that many methods introduced above are not specially invented by researchers working on gold catalysis, but have their origins in other contexts. For example, the post-grafting of mesoporous SiO2 by organosilanes and the one-pot synthesis of organosilane-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 (Section 3.2) are well known in materials chemistry.106,107 The co-synthesis of SiO2 in the presence of a soluble metal salt to prepare supported metal catalysts (Section 3.3) is also known.108,109 The surface-sol-gel or chemical grafting method (Section 4.1) was initially used to modify flat surfaces and powders for other applications.63 The solvated metal atom impregnation method (Section 7) was initially used by inorganic chemists,110 although they did not report gold catalysis at that time. The post-modification of metal catalysts by SiO2 matrix was reported for platinum catalysts used for car-emission control.111 Therefore, many inorganic synthesis methods can be used for the synthesis of novel gold catalysts, and these methods are also expected to be extended to the preparation of other metal catalysts.

第二段开始“打补丁”,给出一个正确的“上下文”。第一句说的是:无论这些方法多么吸引眼球,读者你们千万不要以为是搞金催化的人首次发明的,事实上很多 方法在其它催化剂体系中早就应用了。接着的五句话围绕着第一句总起句,列举文献中其它催化剂体系的例子,把"credit"给该给的人,这样的话,读者读 起来感到很有通透性。最后一句话,打圆场说,合成策略早就被别人发明了,这并不坏,因为这反过来证明这些方法具有通用性,能被拓展到其它体系中去。换句话 说,暗示本综述也有“通用型”,不但研究金催化的人可以看我的综述,设计其它催化剂的人也可以通过看这篇综述得到启发。

One valid question is whether the gold catalysts synthesized by advanced, demanding, and often tedious, synthetic methods or using unique nanostructured supports (e.g., nanotubes and nanobelts) are better than those synthesized via conventional methods or using commercialized supports. As commented in a recent book,12 “Many methods of preparation have been used, but one wonders why some people have laboured to develop very sophisticated methods while others have been content with a much simpler method, apparently giving the same result, namely, the desired small gold particles.” The answer to that question is certainly ambiguous. On the one hand, modern nanotechnology can indeed help with the design of many gold catalysts with improved catalytic performance that can not be achieved by using conventional methods. On the other hand, one can find many publications focusing on the synthesis part, with the catalytic performance not reported or very low.12 One pitfall may be that some gold catalysts may contain residual capping agents and/or organic fragments. These organic fragments, if not sufficiently removed by special treatments, may poison CO oxidation, although gold catalysts with organic fragments may still show some activity in certain organic reactions. This point was sometimes overlooked, and thus undermining the real performance of these advanced gold catalysts. How to properly remove the organic fragments while avoiding the sintering of gold nanoparticles is a challenge. Even if this challenge is overcome, many factors still have to be considered before there can be large-scale utilization of gold catalysts synthesized by advanced technology.

第三段运用理性思辨,指出该专题研究的“陷阱”,那就是:“登山何必扛着船”?如果我用普通合成方法也能得到高效催化剂,那我为什么要用复杂方法合成“吸 引眼球”的纳米催化剂?纳米催化剂究竟有什么优势?这一段写得非常妙,起伏转折,非常critical,体现了一种理性思辨。老板也许不大喜欢我 critical,但是编辑他自己读了我们的综述后写信来说他本人非常欣赏这一段的描述。关于这一段的写作好在什么地方可以看我的博文优美的英语段落欣赏 ----简化版GRE英语http://zhenmafudan.ycool.com/post.2941861.html

In the future, it is important to study the structure-property correlation with the aid of an array of characterization methods.112 One may want to systematically design “model catalysts”, the objective of which is to seek deeper insights into mechanistic roles played by nanostructures instead of achieving high catalytic activity. One idea in this regard is to load gold colloids with identical sizes on different supports to compare their performance, and rank different supports.41,42 Another idea is to systematically build up supports with complex artificial structures. For instance, Au/TiO2/TiO2/SiO2, Au/Al2O3/Al2O3/SiO2, Au/TiO2/Al2O3/SiO2, and Au/Al2O3/TiO2/SiO2 catalysts were synthesized based on SiO2 support sequentially modified by two “layers” of metal oxides.65 However, these “metal/coating/coating/support” catalysts may potentially contain multiple support-coating, coating-coating, metal-support, and metal-coating interfaces, and the difference in catalytic activity in CO oxidation is sometimes too subtle to interpret. Close cooperation between synthetic chemists and those who characterize catalyst properties is needed to better develop functionalized gold catalysts and to elucidate catalytic and structural details on the molecular level.

第四段指出未来学科发展的一个方向:研究结构和物性的关系。指出可能如此这般进行,但是可能存在如此这般问题,暗示一些文章里面示意图画得非常吸引眼球, 但是是不是真的是“单层”、“层叠层”值得思考。因此号召搞材料的人和搞物化研究的人把力气合在一起研究结构和物性的关系。往往,搞合成纳米材料的人不懂 催化,搞催化动力学的人不懂纳米合成,当纳米材料和催化结合在一起,能产生一个新的方向:“纳米催化”。

Finally, it should be mentioned that due to the emphasis of this inorganic materials book, we mainly focus on the use of supported gold nanoparticles as catalysts, rather than on the chemical reactions catalyzed by these materials. So far, the most frequently adopted catalytic reaction to evaluate the performance of gold catalysts is CO oxidation. This probe reaction is easy to carry out and is of some practical values in environmental control. However, in the near future, it is expected that researchers in this area will pay more attention to the applications of gold catalysts in other reactions, such as selective reduction of NOx, water-gas shift, catalytic combustion, selective hydrogenation, selective oxidation, and carbon-carbon coupling of organic molecules.16 These reactions are more complex and more demanding than CO oxidation, and are certainly more interesting from an industrial perspective. Currently most gold catalysts used in these reactions are prepared using common methods and simple components. With the fast development of nanotechnology, it is expected that novel gold catalysts with advanced structures and multiple components will also play a role in these reactions in the future.

第五段首先“打补丁”说囿于本文范围限制,我们主要综述了新型黄金催化剂的结构设计,在文献中大多数人用一氧化碳氧化作为探针反应。因为本书是关于无机纳 米材料的书,所以我们从无机纳米材料角度写综述,遗漏了物理化学和有机化学。但是这不代表这些不重要。指出,在将来,研究者可能大幅度拓展黄金催化剂在其 它反应特别是有机催化的应用。
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